The Precious Stone or Diamond Society: The Emergence of the First Indigenous Pentecostal Movement in South-western Nigeria,
Samson A. Fatokun
The Apostolic Church, though a European Classical Pentecostal denomination name by identification, has her historical emergence in Nigeria deeply rooted in an African independent and indigenous prophetic-healing Pentecostal Movement, the ‘Precious Stone Society, whose origin is dated back to July 1918. The historical emergence of Precious Stone Society is in three phases: (i) the vision of Daddy Ali, the Sexton and the emergence of a prayer group, (ii) the emergence of Miss Sophia Odunlami and the transformation of the prayer group into a Prophetic-Healing Movement within the Anglican Church, (iii) the proscription by Anglican authorities and emergence of Precious Stone as an autonomous African independent Pentecostal Movement.
(i) The Vision of Daddy Ali, the Sexton and the Emergence of a Prayer Group within the Anglican Church.
The origin of what is known today in history as Precious Stone Society is traced to St. Saviour’s (Anglican) Church, Italupe, Ijebu – Ode (now the Cathedral of Our Saviour) in 1918. This movement that later became a society first started as a ‘prayer group within the above mentioned Anglican parish. The group emerged as a result of a claimed series of divine revelations by one Daddy Ali, the sexton of the church which he reportedly related to the vicar of the church, the Rev S.J. Gansallo. Among other revelations, he (Daddy Ali – as was popularly called) claimed to have seen St. Saviour’s Church divided into two parts: one part was large but in darkness, because it gave little thought to prayer; whereas, the other part, though small, was in light because it prayed constantly .
Figure 1: Cathedral of Our Saviour, Italawajoda, Ijebu-Ode where St. Saviour’s Church was later relocated to (Picture Courtesy: Very Rev. Fasanmoye)
The response of the vicar-in-charge at first was very negative. He allegedly simply dismissed the narrated revelation by Daddy Ali, the church’s sexton with a wave of hand. Rather he advised “the dreamer” to find something better to do than going around speaking his day dream. He asked Ali to go back to his work and not to be concerned with dreams that came from sleeping too much: In response, Ali shamefully returned to his duties, but very soon had the same dream again.. With the vicar’s initial cold response, Daddy Ali decided to make consultations with some mature members of the parish. Consequently, a five-man prayer group was formed by some lay members of the church comprising Messrs J.B. Sadare – also known as Esinsin-Ade (the Parish People’s Warden), E.O. Onabajo (who was later ordained as pastor, and subsequently as prophet
However, with the positive response from the above named key members of the church, Rev. Gansallo started to have a rethink of his initial negative reaction to Daddy Ali’s dream. The first positive step he took was to allow the newly formed prayer group to be using the church premises as its meeting place. With this permission, these lay members started holding their meeting, first after every Sunday service (probably within the church premises) and later added Monday evening as there was increase in the number of prayer requests coming in which require more time. S.E.A. Oludare’s claim that they were holding their meeting daily after the church’s general morning prayers was possibly a later development.
Within the shortest time, Rev. S.J. Gansallo started to develop interests in the activities of the prayer group. J.A. Ademakinwa in his book: History of Christ Apostolic Church: The Faith of Our Fathers, reports that the vicar, later started appreciating the work of this group and began to be sending important prayer requests to them, and eventually joined the prayer group as he considered that their line of action would bring progress to the church and himself.
It is however pertinent to comment on the leadership of prayer group at this formative period. While it could be naturally assumed that the ‘visioner’, Daddy Ali, would automatically be the first leader of the group, there is however no such indication in the available historical sources. In fact, historical records are silent on the leadership of the group at this starting time. That notwithstanding, it is more probable that rather than Daddy Ali, the church’s sexton, Mr. J.B. Sadare (whose name later changed to Esinsin-Ade) took up leadership position from the outset due to his initial prominent leadership role at the St. Saviour’s (Anglican) Church as the ‘People’s Warden’ and member of the Lagos Synod of the church – which imply that he was more the voice of the people. It is noteworthy that apart from Daddy Ali relaying the vision which led to the emergence of the prayer, nothing again is heard of him in the group other than that he was one of the five-men who started the prayer group.
(ii) The Emergence of Miss Sophia Odunlami and the Transformation of the Prayer Group into a Prophetic-Healing Pentecostal Movement within the Anglican Church (1918)
The prayer group continued her activity in Anglican Parish, which was basically ‘prayer.’ However, there was an event which promoted the group from a prayer group to a prophetic-healing movement. In the same year (1918), an epidemic (variously described as small pox and bubonic plague) struck in every part of the world just during the closing month of the First World War. This epidemic reportedly claimed an estimated figure of over ten million people died (with thousands from the southern part of Nigeria). The members of the prayer group were praying seriously at this period for divine intervention into the deadly epidemic and the spiritual revival of the church. As this epidemic was spreading rapidly, a nineteen year old school mistress by name Sophia Odunlami (later Mrs. Ajayi) at a village called Isonyin, close to Ijebu – Ode, had a spiritual experience during her five days’ illness of the influenza during which she allegedly heard a voice: “I shall send peace to this house and the whole world as the world war is ended”. It was revealed to her that rain water and prayer would be the most effectual remedy for the influenza victims. Furthermore, she claimed it was repeatedly revealed to her that members of the church were “sinning” in various ways such as using medicine (both native and European), eating kola – nuts, drinking too much palm – wine, wearing charms, wearing fine clothes and having feasts on Sundays.
This unusual spiritual experience of hers was interpreted by some in the Anglican community as a demonic possession, and by her own father as a form of madness. However, Sophia, being convinced of the veracity of her divine revelations became an itinerant evangelist – preaching from place to place, telling people to store rain water and have it consecrated for use. She warned that those who contracted the plague would die if they trusted in the power of medicine, but would be healed if they relied only on the sanctified water from the rain. The message from Sophia’s spiritual experiences was, according to F.O. Adeniran, relayed to Rev. Gansallo and members of the prayer group who accepted and put them into practice. Apart from preaching the divine healing message in Ijebuland, Sophia’s itinerant evangelical and prophetic-healing ministry extended to other places like Ibadanland with accompanying miracles. Her usual bible text for preaching was Zechariah chapter 14.
Figure 2: J.B. Sadare & Sophia Odunlami
With the coming of Sophia Odulami and the practice of her claimed visions, the prayer group became famous and prominent in prophetic-healing activities. Members of the group were directed to follow her instructions and several people were reportedly healed without the use of medicine. Many other miracles were, according to S.G. Adegboyega, performed by the Lord through her. Thus, the emergence of Sophia Odunlami later in 1918 can be said to be what transformed the prayer group into a Prophetic-Healing Pentecostal
Movement within the Anglican Church. Therefore, one can say with all fairness that the first prophetic-healing evangelist to emerge in the founding years of the church was a female, though later developments by way of affiliations of the movement gradually led to the subjective role of women in active ministry in the church in accordance with Paul’s injunction in I Corinthians 14:34. This subsequently affected Prophetess Sophia Odunlami’s prophetic-healing activities, which in later years led to her decamping from The Apostolic Church.
It is equally significant to note here that the later well pronounced puritanical (holiness) and anti-medicinal (divine-healing) practices of The Apostolic Church Nigeria had their origin not in the later affiliated foreign denominations but in the claimed spiritual experience of the African lady, Sophia Odunlami. Idris J. Vaughan in his book, commenting on the pioneering role of this African indigenous prophetess and evangelist, describes Sophia Odunlami as a God-gifted divine leader raised in an outbreak of influenza against which all charms and medicines (both African and European) had been useless.
Naming and Transformation into a Society (July 1920)
Still in the same year, when the prayer group was just a few months old, the Colonial Government, in an attempt to check the rapid spread of the epidemic, ordered all public buildings to be closed down. The vicar – in – charge of the St. Saviours’ (Anglican) Church complied and retired to his farm (although another source has it that he made an exit out of the country). The minister’s action is interpreted as an act of faithlessness by the praying group who, following the example of the Rev. S.C. Philips (later Bishop), the African principal of Ijebu-Ode Grammar School, resorted to intensive prayers, leading to a procession of church members round the town, in prayer for deliverance.
Figure 3:Picture of Rev S.C. Philips
With the closure of the church, this group continued relentlessly in its praying and prophetic-healing activities with the venue of the meeting shifting to the front of their closed church and later in the house of the People’s Warden and lay member of the Lagos Diocesan Synod, Mr. J.B. Sadare. It was at this juncture that J.B. Sadare’s name became prominent as the leader of the group.
Figure 4: J.B. Sadare’s House, where the Group was meeting after the closure of St. Saviour’s Church.
In 1919, an Ijebu man by name David Odubanjo, who was later to emerge as the society’s Missionary Correspondent, joined the group. He was working with the Colonial Police Force, and was at a time transferred to Warri from Lagos. On his visit to his hometown in 1919 after his resignation from the Colonial Police Force, he was introduced to the indigenous prophetic-healing movement by Mr. D.O. Segun. Records have it that it was during this meeting of Odubanjo with the group that he advised them go and pray to get a name for the movement. Some sources have it that Sadare, at the coming of Odubanjo to the group, ceded leadership to him till his return to Lagos, on a claim that he was found more knowledgeable on the subjects of divine healing and prevailing prayers based on his initial contact with Faith Tabernacle Congregation’s magazine. However, this claim is questionable on a number of grounds. One, Odubanjo, no matter his claimed level of familiarity with the doctrine of divine healing and prevailing prayers, was a new comer into the group. Second, Sadare was such a man of outstanding spiritual qualities and popularity whose importance Odubanjo could not be a match to at that time. Coupled with these is the fact that Odubanjo never in his personal life records documented such a ‘significant claim’ which he could not have slipped under the carpet if it truly happened. Adegboyega in his eye-witness’ account, affirms Sadare as the leader of the indigenous prophetic-healing Pentecostal movement in its earliest years of formation.
Significantly, the hitherto unnamed indigenous prophetic-healing Pentecostal movement was formally inaugurated in July 1920 (exactly two years after its commencement at Ijebu – Ode). The Yoruba name Egbe Okuta Iyebiye which was allegedly revealed to J.B. Sadare, was officially adopted. This Yoruba name was variously translated as “The Precious Stone Society” or “Diamond Society”. J.D.Y. Peel sees the name as an allusion to the precious stone mentioned by St. Paul in I Corinthians 3: 12 when speaking of the Christian foundation. On the other hand, the name appears to be more related to St. Peter’s reference to Christ as the Living and Chief Corner Stone: “Behold,
I lay in Zion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: And he that believes on Him shall not be confounded”.
The Spread of Precious Stone Society
The activities of the society spread outside Ijebuland through traders, civil servants, and other workers. Soon, branches of the society were established in Lagos and some few other places. For instance, Pastor S.G. Adegboyega, who later became the first African Territorial Chairman of The Apostolic Church,
Lagos and Western/Northern Areas (LAWNA), Nigeria, Sierra-Leone, Republic of Benin and Republic of Togo, in his book, claims membership of Precious Stone Society as far back as 1918 when he was a civil servant under Nigerian Railway on transfer from Ebute-Metta, Lagos to Ibadan. Similarly, J.A. Babatope of Ilesa when he heard of the fame of Precious Stone Society and its prophetic-healing and prayer activities travelled to Ijebu-Ode to visit and commune with J.B. Sadare in 1922, possibly for collaboration with his own led group.39
More significantly, in 1920, David Odubanjo, who had been in Ijebu-Ode since 1919 where he became a very active member of the group, decided to return to Lagos to re-enter into government paid job. He subsequently opened a branch of the society in Lagos, which later became the Missionary Headquarters of the movement.
As earlier mentioned, the famous and influential People’s Warden, J.B. Sadare, became publicly recognized as the leader of the society instead of the church’s sexton, Daddy Ali – whose vision birthed the society. Mr. J.L. Ajayi (who later got married to the society’s evangelist and prophetess, Sophia Odulami) equally emerged as the Secretary. It is however ironical that the name and importance of Daddy Ali (the original seer whose dreams birthed the society) soon faded out of the society in preference to Sadare as the leader. Possibly, Daddy Ali was unable to combine the demanding leadership role of the group with his official assignment as the sexton of the church (a job that was equally demanding). Or still that he (Daddy Ali) was considered to be less important in status to be leader of the group. In comparison, J.B. Sadare, apart from occupying the prestigious office of the People’s Warden in the premier Anglican parish in Ijebu-land, was a self–employed goldsmith and prominent man in the town. Besides, he had been a lay member of the Anglican Diocesan Synod since 1906. Moreover, when in 1913, leading Ijebu Christians decided to found a secondary school, the classes were first held in his compound. And far from being a spiritual figurehead, Sadare was reportedly a man of prayer. All these qualities possibly combined in making Sadare to be preferred to Daddy Ali as the leader of the group. That notwithstanding, it is necessary that some place of importance be accorded Daddy Ali in history as a man of deep spirituality whose spiritual experience (revelation) served as the motivating force to the founding of the praying group that laid the foundation for first prophetic-healing Pentecostal movement in Southwestern Nigeria.
(iii) Events Leading to Proscription by Anglican Authorities and the Subsequent Emergence of Precious Stone Society as an Autonomous African Indigenous Pentecostal Movement
Between 1918 and 1920, the Precious Stone Society continued its operations as a semi-autonomous movement within the Anglican Church without any clash with the authorities of the church. In fact, the society enjoyed the supports of the church authorities at this early stage. However, the society later started to attract the negative attention of Anglican authorities, owing to its ‘strange’ but outstanding practices. In 1921, the Bishop of Lagos, The Rt. Rev. Melville Jones, conferred with the leaders of the Precious Stone and praised the high morality of the society, its persistence prayers and demonstration of the power of God, but objected to its insistence on the exclusive use of faith healing (divine healing), its opposition to the baptism of infants, and its reliance on dreams and visions for guidance. He, however, managed to secure their promises to re–print their list of the things to which objections were made and support for the church’s practice of infant baptism.
In the 1922 Synod meeting, the issues were again raised. Bishop Jones and his assistant, Assistant Bishop Isaac Oluwole, had visited Ijebu–Ode and discovered that the promises had not been kept. It was further discovered that Sadare had not brought his own children for baptism with the excuse that he had been prevented from doing so through a vision. After some members’ young children had died, it was allegedly revealed in a vision to Sadare that infant baptism was wrong; and upon this, he (Sadare) hanged his non–compliance. Oludare has however tried to debunk this claimed vision of Sadare against infant baptism. As pointed out by him, the group was not oblivious of the fact that epidemic was not totally eradicated and that children had little or no resistance against the epidemic which made it quite usual for children to die in those days rather than infant baptism which Sadare alleged as the root cause of infants.
Proscription of Precious Stone Society by the Anglican Church’s Authorities
Owing to the non–compliance of the leaders and members of the Precious Stone Society to the previous objection of the authorities of the Anglican Church, the society was proscribed. Sadare was forced to resign his seat at the Synod. Similarly, all teachers in the C.M.S. schools who were members of the society were asked to either renounce their membership with the “fanatical group” or else lose their jobs and also withdraw their children from the Anglican schools. The leadership and members of Precious Stone Society felt unjustly victimized and persecuted, and so they left the Anglican Church. To cater for sacked teachers and members’ children expelled from Anglican schools, the society, through the leadership role of Sadare, established a primary a school in Ijebu-ode, called ‘Precious Stone Society School’. Mr J.L . Ajayi was appointed as first Headmaster with Miss Sophia Odunlami (whom he later married) as Assistant.
In all, the emergence of Precious Stone Society (P.S.S.) as a charismatic group in St. Savior’s (Anglican ) Church in 1918 can be rightly tagged “the beginning of a new era” in the history of Christianity in Southwestern Nigeria. This is because for almost seventy years of the existence of Christianity in the country (1842 – 1918), worship in the different church denominations was rather intellectual, rigid, and formalistic. The church was spiritually cold, lacking in Pentecostal qualities. As stressed by Benjamin Steward: “There were no revival, and no miracles to confirm the mighty power of the Almighty God among the Christians”.
Moreover, the emergence of Precious Stone Society characteristically marked in Southwestern Nigeria, the beginning of a Pentecostal Revival, whose flames soon spread throughout the country, thus transforming Nigerian Christianity from more of an intellectual religion to a power-demonstrating and experience-dominating one. As related by D. Olayiwola:
The prayer cells organised by the Diamond Society preach the power and authority of prayer. Their activities attracted and lured other members of Anglican Church into membership. With this vivid demonstration of power in Christ through faith healing, vision and dreams, the Society, the first of its kind in the southwest, became an irresistible centre of attraction.
 For details see N/a (n/d), A Short History of Precious Stone Church (Ijo Okuta Iyebiye), Abeokua: Jibolu Enterprises Nig. Ltd.
 St. Saviour’s (Anglican) Church at Italupe was later relocated to Italajoda for expansion purpose when Ijebu District Church Council (DCC) was to be created. Today, it is a diocesan headquarters under the name ‘The Cathedral of Our Saviour’, Italajoda. However, some of the members who left for the new site, later decided to go back to Italupe, due to long distance. Consequent upon which they re-established another Anglican parish on the same old site with a new name ‘Emmanuel Anglican Church’, Italupe. A new structure was put in place on the same old premises at Italupe, while the old church structure used formerly as St. Saviour’s Church is presently being used as a hall. (Sources: Interviews with Rt. Rev. O.O. Obijole (who had once worked in Ijebu-Ode as a priest and later a Cathedral Provost before his election as Bishop) and The Very Rev. A.K. Fasanmoye, (the present Provost of Ijebu-South-West Anglican Diocese). Both interviewed in April 2017.
 See G.O. Odufowote (1984), “The Adoption of The Apostolic Church as a Denominational Name in Nigeria”, B.A. Long Essay, Dept. of Religious Studies, University of Ibadan, p. 13.
 See S.E.A. Oludare (1999) “The Trio of C.A.C Founding Fathers: Odubanjo, Akinyele and Babalola”, M.A. Project, Dept. of Religious Studies, University of Ibadan, p. 13
 J.A. Ademakinwa (2012), History of Christ Apostolic Church: The Faith of Our Fathers (a new edition), Lagos: The Battle Cry Christian Ministries, p.13
 Spelt as ‘Shadare’ in some works.
 Pastor E.O. Onabajo (and not ‘Onabanjo’- as wrongly spelt by some writers), according to an interview with Pastor E.S. Awojide (the National Vice-President & LAWNA Territorial Chairman, The Apostolic Church Nigeria (TACN) rose through the ranks to become a great and celebrated prophet in The Apostolic Church Nigeria. The historic 1944 prophecy which led till date to the annual practice of ‘May Offering’ (offering of the month’s Gross Income by all) at the National Headquarters of T.A.C.N, 42, Cemetery Street Ebute-metta, Lagos, was delivered by him at the same venue during the Monday Evening Service of 8 May, 1944 (and re-emphasised in another prophecy given by him at the Elders’ Meeting of Tuesday 16, may 1944).
. Oludare (1999) “The Trio of C.A.C Founding Fathers: Odubanjo, Akinyele and Babalola”, p. 13.
 See F.O. Adeniran (1980), “A Brief History of the Origin and Growth of C.A.C. in Ibadan (1930 – 1980)”, B.A. Long Essay, Department of Religious Studies, University of Ibadan, p. 18
 Oludare (1999) “The Trio of C.A.C Founding Fathers: Odubanjo, Akinyele and Babalola”, p. 14.
 J.A. Ademakinwa (2012), History of Christ Apostolic Church: The Faith of Our Fathers (a new edition), pp.13-14
 Sadare’s name was later changed to Esinsinade after a claimed revelation in a dream that the name had connections with orisa (pagan god)
 See I.D. Ayegboyin & S. A. Ishola (1997), African Indigenous Churches, Lagos: Greater Heights Publication, p.9
 See J.A. Omoyajowo (1966), “The Independent Church Movement of Yorubaland”, B.A. Long Essay, Dept. of Religious Studies, University of Ibadan, p.9
 Ayegboyin and Ishola (1997), African Indigenous Churches, p. 67.
 See Adeniran (1980), “A Brief History of the Origin and Growth of C.A.C. in Ibadan (1930 – 1980)” p.18
 H.W. Turner (1967), History of an African Independent Church (Vol.1),,Oxford: Clarendon Press, p.9
 Adeniran (1980), “A Brief History of the Origin and Growth of C.A.C. in Ibadan (1930 – 1980)”, p.18
 J.A. Ademakinwa (2012), History of Christ Apostolic Church: The Faith of Our Fathers (new edition), Lagos: The Battle Cry Christian Ministries, p.16
 J.D.Y. Peel (1968), Aladura: A Religious Movement Among the Yoruba, Oxford: O.U.P.,, p. 67
 S.G. Adegboyega (1978), Short History of The Apostolic Church in Nigeria, Ibadan: Rosprint Industrial Press Ltd., p. 3
 For details see , S.A. Fatokun (2006), ‘Women and Leadership in Nigerian Pentecostal Churches’ in Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae (Journal of the Church History Society of Southern Africa), Vol. 32, No. 3, Dec., pp. 193-205. http://www.worldcat.org/title/studia-historiae-ecclesiasticae/oclc/30763120
 This partly explains why Sophia eventually decided to leave The Apostolic Church later in life together with her husband, J.L. Ajayi, for Pastor Sadare’s Precious Stone Church, sometime after Pastor Sadare’s withdrawal from affiliation with The Apostolic Church Great Britain. She remained an active Evangelist/Prophetess of Precious Stone Church, Ijebu-Ode from 1933 till her death on Sunday 28th September 1981 (see N/a (n/d), A Short History of Precious Stone Church (Ijo Okuta Iyebiye), Abeokua: Jibolu Enterprises Nig. Ltd., pp. 7&8
 I.J. Vaughan (1991), Nigeria: The Origins of Apostolic Church Pentecostalism, 1931-1952, Great Britain: Ipswish Book Company, p. 7
Peel (1968), Aladura: A Religious Movement Among the Yoruba, p. 62
 See Ayegboyin and Ishola (1997), African Indigenous Churches,p.66
 Rev. S.C. Philips was the second principal of Ijebu-Ode Grammar School, between April 1915-Dec. 1918 (and not ‘Head–master’ as put in some sources) – For details see Segun Odunuga & Bankole Okuwa (eds.) (2013), A Century of Ijebu-Ode Grammar School, 1913-2013, Ibadan: Dabfol Printers, p. 44 .
 Adeniran (1980), “A Brief History of the Origin and Growth of C.A.C. in Ibadan (1930 – 1980)”, p.19
 S. Babs Mala (n/d) , “The Christ Apostolic Church: Its History and organisation”, (Unpublished manuscript), University of Jos Campus, pp.1-2.See also H.W. Turner (1967), History of an African Independent Church (Vol.1),Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 2-39
 J.A. Ademakinwa (2012), History of Christ Apostolic Church: The Faith of Our Fathers ( new edition), p. 17
 See n/a, The Diamond Society Minute Book, No. 1, July 5, 1920- May 1921. ,
 For instance see J.A. Ademakinwa (2012), History of Christ Apostolic Church: The Faith of Our Fathers (new edition), p. 17; Emmanuel Olubunmi Ogungbemi, (1991), The Apostolic Church in Yorubaland, 1940-1981”, PhD Thesis, University of Ibadan, pp. 89-90; Leke Ogunewu, “David Odubanjo” in Dictionary of African Christian Biography, www.dacb.org.
 Adekainwa says Odubanjo was leader only till his return to Lagos while others say even thereafter.
 Pastor D. O. Odubanjo’s Personal Family Records (Unpublished)
 See S.G. Adegboyega (1978), Short History of The Apostolic Church in Nigeria, Ibadan: Rosprint Press, pp. 40, 41, 56, 70 & 71. In fact, as will be seen in the later chapters, the General Headquarters of movement till affiliation with The Apostolic Church Great Britain remained in Ijebu-Ode – the seat of Sadare, while Odubanjo’s seat in Lagos featured only as the Missionary Headquarters. Similarly, Adegobyega often referred to Sadare as ‘Our National Leader’ (S.G. Adegboyega (1978), Short History of The Apostolic Church in Nigeria, pp. 40 &41). He (Sadare) in this capacity chaired the meeting of Conference of Faith Tabernacle Congregation Pastors in Nigeria in 1930 to decide affiliation with The Apostolic Church Great Britain while Odubanjo acted as Secretary in spite of the fact that Pastor A. Clarke upon affiliation with Faith Tabernacle Congregation appointed Odubanjo as the Presiding Pastor for Nigeria – See S.G. Adegboyega (1978), Short History of The Apostolic Church in Nigeria, compare page 8 with page 56
 See n/a, The Diamond Society Minute Book, No. 1, July 5,, 1920- May 1921. This name was received by Sadare at the advice of Odubanjo that the group should pray for a name.
 Peel (1968), Aladura: A Religious Movement Among the Yoruba, p. 63 (see the foot note reference)
 Pastor S.G. Adegboyega is celebrated as one of the seven indigenous co-founding fathers of The Apostolic Church denomination in Nigeria.
 Adegboyega (1978), Short History of The Apostolic Church in Nigeria, p. 3
39 See G.O. Olutola (1993), Itan Igbese Aiye Oluso-Agutan J.A.Babatope (Biography of Pastor J.A. Babatope), Ilesha: T.A.C. Ilesha Area Council, pp.3 – 4
 Adegboyega (1978), Short History of The Apostolic Church in Nigeria
 See Peel (1968), Aladura: A Religious Movement Among the Yoruba, p. 66 (See the footnote reference)
 Ibid., p. 63
 Odufowote (1984), “The Adoption of The Apostolic Church as a Denominational Name in Nigeria”
 Peel, (1968), Aladura: A Religious Movement Among the Yoruba, p. 18
 Oludare (1999) “The Trio of C.A.C Founding Fathers: Odubanjo, Akinyele and Babalola”, p. 18
 See Adeniran (1980), “A Brief History of the Origin and Growth of C.A.C. in Ibadan (1930 – 1980)”, p. 21
 Ademakinwa (2012) History of Christ Apostolic Church-The Faith of Our Fathers (New Edition), p. 26
 Benjamin Steward (1983), Historical Background of Churches in Nigeria, Lagos: Inter-Wale Press, p.17
 D.O. Olayiwola (1987), “The Aladuras: Its Strategies for Mission and Conversion in Yorubaland” in Orita, Vol. 19, No.1. June 1987, p.42